Croatian Darts Federation in association with professors from Faculty of kinesiology / University of Zagreb published the First official Book for Darts.

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DARTS

Publisher: Croatian Darts Federation

For the Publisher: Mate Vukoja, president of the Croatian Darts Federation

Editors:
Željko Đođo
Zoran Milanovic
, mag.cin.
Goran Sporiš, PhD

Authors:
Dr. Linda Duffy
Željko Đođo
Josip Zeki
, MD
Mario Jovanovi
, mag.cin.
Goran Sporiš, PhD

Translation from Croatian: Marko Hrvatin

Lector/redactor: Marko Hrvatin

Photos: Archive of Croatian Darts Federation

Illustrations: Stanko Bešli

Graphic design: Petar Raguž, Iva Franji

Zagreb, 2015

CONTENT

CONTENT

Forewords 7
Introduction 9

1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DARTS 11
1.1. The history of darts 11
1.2. New era – the advent of electronic darts 29
1.3. Development of darts in Croatia 32
1.4. Overview of most important darts associations 34

2. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF DARTS 37
2.1. Basic classification of darts 37
2.1.1. Classic darts (steel tip) 37
2.1.2. Electronic darts (soft tip) 37
2.1.2.1. Electronic darts and small dartboard (13.5 inches) 38
2.1.2.2. Electronic darts and large dartboard (15.5 inches) 38
2.2. Electronic darts machine 38
2.2.1. Important electronic parts of the dart machine 38
2.2.1.1. Display 40
2.2.1.2. TUP sensor 40
2.2.1.3. Buttons 40
2.2.1.4. Dartboard 40
2.2.1.5. Lights and lighting 42
2.2.2. Important mechanical parts of the electronic dart machine 42
2.2.3. The computer program (software) 43
2.3. Basic darts games 43
2.3.1. 501 DO/MO/SO 43
2.3.1.1. Scoring 46
2.3.1.2. Preparing a checkout 48
2.3.1.3. Checking out 50
2.3.1.4. Checkout chart for x01 games (Double Out) 52
2.3.1.5. Master Out and Single Out 53
2.3.1.6. Double In 53
2.3.1.7. Freeze Rule (Team option) 53
2.3.2. Cricket 53
2.3.2.1. Game opening 54
2.3.2.2. Middle phase 54
2.3.2.3. Finishing the game 54
2.4. Different type of games on electronic darts machine 55
2.4.1. The x01 games: 180, 301, 501, 701, 901, 1001 55
2.4.2. Parchessi 55
2.4.3. Run&Gun 55
2.4.4. Cricket 55
2.4.5. Cricket Cut Throat 55
2.4.6. Cricket Master 55
2.4.7. Cricket Killer 56
2.4.8. Cricket Pick-It 56
2.4.9. Cricket Random 56
2.4.10. Cricket Crazy 56
2.4.11. High Score 56
2.4.12. Low Score 56
2.4.13. Super Score 56
2.4.14. Super 100 56
2.4.15. Split Score 56
2.4.16. Shanghai 57
2.4.17. Solo 301 57
2.4.18. Solo High Score 57
2.4.19. Pub Game 57
2.4.20. Scram 57
2.4.21. Marathon 57
2.4.22. Mini Marathon 57
2.4.23. Roulette 57
2.4.24. Baseball 58
2.5. The options of the games 58
2.5.1. Double In 58
2.5.2. Cut Throat (Cricket) 58
2.5.3. Double Out 58
2.5.4. Master Out 58
2.5.5. Equal 58
2.5.6. End 58
2.5.7. Quattro 58
2.6. Training 58
2.7. Darts 59
2.7.1. Barrel 60
2.7.2. Shaft 63
2.7.3. Flights 66
2.7.4. Tip 68
2.7.5. Extras 69
2.7.5.1. O Rings 69
2.7.5.2. Shaft Rings 69
2.7.5.3. Shaft Crowns 69
2.7.5.4. Flight Protectors 69
2.7.5.5. Weights 70
2.7.6. Other equipment and tools 70
2.7.6.1. Flights Punch Tool 70
2.7.6.2. Shaft Lock System 70
2.7.6.3. Multi Tool 70
2.7.6.4. Tool for removing tips from the dartboard 70
2.7.6.5. Wax for fingers 71
2.7.6.6. Throwing line 71
2.7.6.7. Boxes and handbags for darts and equipment 71

3. DEFINITIONS OF BASIC TERMS AND THE COMPETITION SYSTEM 73
3.1. Definitions of basic terms in electronic darts 73
3.1.1. Throw or round 73
3.1.2. Leg 73
3.1.3. Set 73
3.1.4. Match 73
3.1.5. Clubs and teams 73
3.1.6. Score sheet 74
3.1.7. Bracket 74
3.2. Definitions of basic terms in classic darts 74
3.3. Classification of competitions according to player’s age 74
3.4. Categorization of players 75
3.5. Organisation of league matches 75
3.5.1. League match score sheet 75
3.5.2. Determining the first throw advantage (Diddle) 76
3.5.3. Order of playing 76
3.5.4. Reserves 76
3.5.5. Score keeping 76
3.5.6. Verification of score sheet 76
3.5.7. Match structure 77
3.5.8. Scoring 77
3.6. Organisation of cup matches 77
3.6.1. Cup match score sheet 77
3.6.2. Order of playing 77
3.6.3. Match structure 77
3.6.4. Scoring 77
3.7. Fouls during the game 77
3.8. Classification of competitions 78
3.8.1. County competitions 78
3.8.1.1. League competitions 78
3.8.1.2. Cup competitions 79
3.8.1.3. Masters competition 79
3.8.2. State competitions 79
3.8.2.1. Croatian Team Championship 79
3.8.2.2. National Masters Series 79
3.8.2.3. Croatian Individual Championship 80
3.8.2.4. Croatian Cup Finals 80
3.8.3. International competitions 80
3.8.4. Other competitions 80
3.9. Statistical parameters of PPD and MPR 81
3.9.1. Points per dart (PPD) 81
3.9.2. Marks per round (MPR) 81
3.10. Dress Code 82
3.10. 1. Dress Code for the Croatian Individual Championship 82
3.10.2. Dress Code for the Croatian Team Championship and Croatian Cup Finals 82
3.11. The procedure for establishing and registering the club 83
3.12. Membership in the Croatian Darts Federation 83
3.13. The procedure for players registration 83

4. KINESIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DARTS AS A KINESIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY 85
4.1. Analysis of the dart techique 85
4.1.1. Basic technical structures of the dart throw 86
4.1.1.1. Types and characteristics of the stance at the throwing line 86
4.1.1.2. Body position at the throwing line 88
4.1.1.3. Dart holding (grip), position and pointing at the target 89
4.1.2. Basic phases and principles of the dart throw 91
4.1.2.1. Analytical phases of the throw 91
4.1.2.1.1. Aiming 95
4.1.2.1.2. Arm flexion and pulling of the dart backwards 95
4.1.2.1.3. Swing 95
4.1.2.1.4. Extension and release 96
4.1.2.1.5. Final movement (follow-through to the full extension of the arm) 97

5. THE SCIENCE OF DARTS 99
5.1. Introduction 99
5.2. The emergence of professional darts 99
5.3. The nature of dart throwing 100
5.4. Professional dart playing today 100
5.5. Characteristics of expert performance in darts 102
5.6. The single dart average as a reliable measure of dart playing performance 102
5.7. Throwing development, gender and darts 102
5.8. First research to investigate professional dart players: expert performance, gender and practice 103
5.9. Ratings of practice 103
5.10. Analyses of practice 104
5.11. The influence of physical attributes, participation rates and gender on dart playing performance 106
5.12. Bi-lateral transfer, practice and gender differences in dart throwing 110
5.13. When things go very wrong – Dartitis! 112
5.14. Conclusions 113

6. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPORT NUTRITION 115
6.1. Introduction 115
6.2. What are energy demands and how to determine them 116
6.3. Basic nutrients – essential in every diet 117
6.4. What are proteins? 117
6.5. Why athletes need proteins? 118
6.6. How to supply proteins for athletic performance 118
6.7. What should an athlete know about carbohydrates? 118
6.8. Let us list the carbohydrate sources 119
6.9. Carbohydrates that are beneficial for athletes’ health 120
6.10. Let us learn about fats and their importance 120
6.11. When and which fat should an athlete consume? 120
6.12. Vitamins and minerals – small, yet important nutrients 121
6.13. Hydration is mandatory 122
6.14. Supplementation is a “step forward” in sport 122
6.15. Phytofarmaceuticals or plant supplements 123
6.15.1. Tribulus terrestris – natural strength and vitality 123
6.15.2. Cordyceps sinensis – an extract for endurance 123
6.15.3. Shilajit – faster way to recovery 124
6.15.4. Siberian ginseng – energy throughout the day 124
6.15.5. Panax Ginseng – the root of vitality 124
6.15.6. Cocoa – undervalued superpower source 126
6.15.7. Centella Asiatica – Focus 126
6.16. Supplementation for strength 126
6.16.1. Proteins – the building blocks of our body 126
6.16.2. Glutamine – an omnipresent amino-acid 127
6.16.3. BCAA – Branched-chain amino-acids 128
6.16.4. HMB – the muscles’ guard 128
6.16.5. Creatine – a solution for pure strength 128
6.16.6. Carnosine – in tandem with beta-alanine 129
6.17. Supplementation with the effect on endurance 129
6.17.1. Glucose or dextrose – pure energy 129
6.17.2. Maltodextrin – a carbohydrate for training 130
6.17.3. Beta-alanine – endurance pioneer 130
6.17.4. Citrulline malate – a dual-role player 131
6.17.5. Caffeine – a double-edged sword 131
6.18. Supplementation with an effect on cognitive abilities 132
6.18.1. Lecithin – a balm for mental exhaustion 132
6.18.2. Phosphatidylserine 132
6.18.3. Tyrosine 132
6.18.4. EPA/DHA – fats essential for health 132
6.18.5. Dietary recommendations for the competition day 133
6.19. Effects of specific weather conditions and other circumstances on nutrition 134
6.19.1. Heat 135
6.19.2. Cold 135
6.19.3. High altitudes 136
6.19.4. The effect of travelling across time zones 136

Literature 139